Samstag, 12. Oktober 2013
In Norwegen herrscht wie in Schweden das Modell der Kundenbestrafung. Es gibt aus verschiedenen politischen Lagern jedoch Kritik am Gesetz, da Klagen von Sexarbeiter/innen und Hilfsorganisationen bezüglich gestiegener Gewalt und Diskriminierung ernst genommen werden und nicht einfach als Kollateralschaden im Kampf gegen Sexarbeit(erinnen) akzeptiert werden. Deshalb hat das Justizministerium eine Evaluierung der geltenden Rechtslage beschlossen:
http://www.aftenposten.no/meninger/debatt/Ma-evalueres---grundig-7319711.html (Artikel auf Norwegisch, mit Google Translate verständlich) Die neue Regierung steht der Kriminalisierung eher kritisch gegenüber: http://www.bt.no/meninger/Verdien-av-sexkjopslova-2967296.html
"The law has not had the impact supporters said it should have. Our starting point has always been what's best for women and boys who prostitute themselves (Anm.: Würden es doch alle so sehen...). We were afraid that a ban would make the prostitute more dependent on facilitators and more prone to violence. It has unfortunately come true, says deputy and leader of the Conservative Party's program committee, Bent Høie."
There are many indications that the situation of girls and women has become worse as a result of the law, and when politicians must be adult enough to admit that the law has been counterproductive. It is not unnatural if this is an issue that will be reversed if there is a new government after the elections, said deputy Per Arne Olsen told VG.
Die Rechtslage in Norwegen schadet Massnahmen, welche der Sicherheit von Sexworkern dienen sollen. Eine Beratungs- und Hilfsstelle wollte ein Cover-System einführen, bei welchem Sexarbeiter/innen die Daten von Kunden vor dem Treffen jeweils in einer Datenbank speichern können. So wüsste stets jemand, wo sie sind- und im Falle einer Gewalttat wäre der Täter klar. Bei Gewalt gegen Sexarbeiter/innen gilt oft: Gelegenheit macht den Vergewaltiger. Gewalttäter denken, sie seien anonym und würden sowieso nicht gefasst werden. Ausserdem vertrauen sie auf die Stigmatisierung und Diskriminierung von Sexworkern, welche sie von einer Anzeigeerstattung abhalten kann (zb. in Schweden, weil man nicht als Sexarbeiterin bei der Polizei bekannt werden möchte). Deshalb ist es in einigen Bereichen der Sexarbeit (zb. Escort) üblich, dass man eine Cover-Person hat- jemand der weiss, wo man ist und folglich oft auch mit wem. Dies reduziert das Gewaltrisiko bereits erheblich- denn die wenigsten potenziellen Gewalttäter sind "Psychos", die nichts zu verlieren haben. Aber nicht jede/r hat eine vertraute Person, welche diese Rolle übernehmen könnte. Und in Norwegen sind Agenturen als "Zuhälterei" verboten. Die Organisation Prosentret wollte hier Abhilfe schaffen. Dies scheiterte jedoch daran, dass der Kauf sexueller Dienstleistungen verboten ist. Wenn ein Register von Kunden existiert, wären diese per se Straftäter- unabhängig davon, ob sie normale Kunden oder Gewalttäter sind. Die Polizei könnte das Register herausverlangen und alle bestrafen. Die Datenschutzbehörde sah dies als unzulässig an, weshalb das Register nicht eingeführt werden konnte (weshalb wurde nicht die Herausgabe an die Polizei verboten..?) Selbstverständlich wäre das Projekt auch ein Misserfolg gewesen, wenn Sexarbeiter befürchten müssen, ihre Kunden zu verraten. Und im schlimmsten Fall könnte Prosentret sogar für "Förderung der Prostitution" belangt werden.
Nachtrag vom 23.10:
Kriminologin May-Len Skilbrei kritisiert, dass Sexarbeiterinnen in Norwegen bei der Verfolgung von Menschenhandel misshandelt werden. :
Prostitute abused in pursuit of criminals
The way the police treat the prostitute , violate their rights , says researcher .
In Norway connects prostitution , trafficking and immigration law in such a way that women who sell sex gets worse , and in the other Nordic countries occurs similar things . In Norway connects prostitution , trafficking and immigration law in such a way that women who sell sex gets worse , and in the other Nordic countries occurs similar things . Prostitution market in Norway and neighboring countries has become far more international in recent years and now takes place in a variety of environments . Many prostitute coming across the border to sell sex, and contact with customers takes place over the Internet and mobile telephony as well as on the street. It has also internationalized prostitution aroused concerns about women victims of trafficking and pimping . In Norway and in our neighboring countries , we have laws against human trafficking and a number of measures to help the victims . At the same time the police and authorities also foreign prostitute as a problem to be stopped at the border. They are not alone in seeing it that way, also the tourist industry , hotel industry and residential landlords want the cross-border prostitution restricted.
Monitored and controlled
It is entirely permissible to sell sex in Scandinavia today . At the same time , there are laws that prohibit foreign women selling sex, or forbidden to sell sex in specific arenas. In addition, police women who sell sex as a means to prosecute human trafficking , pimping and buying sex , which means they are monitored and controlled by the authorities and the police , although they have not broken any laws.
deprived of rights
This is about the police in Scandinavia think handy , and use the funds they have available . Although women in politics and debate is often seen as victims and the weaker party , involves policy in practice that their lives are difficult. Foreign women who sell sex are particularly vulnerable , since the police are using them in an attempt to uncover human trafficking and organized crime.
Assumed victims get help or not often depends on how far they stretch to help police and prosecutors . The consequence is that the prostitute who comes across the border get their freedoms and rights restricted. They are stopped at airports and refused visas, they are " outet " and thrown out of their homes by the landlord tips about possible prostitution , they are denied rooms at hotels and guesthouses , sent out of the country and so on . Police grounds are like the women are " victims " who must be saved from prostitution and human trafficking , but this puts women at the same time in a very difficult situation. Police in Scandinavia think handy , and use the resources they have available , says Skilbrei . Police intervention in prostitution and in the lives of the foreign women are greatly increased in recent years , and the search for witnesses to trafficking prevents or makes women's access to Norway difficult. (Anm.: Prostitutionsbekämpfung wieder mal als Vorwand für rassistische, sexistische Diskriminierung) Police efforts to stop human trafficking , pimping , illegal immigration and buying sex has created a situation where these women are available for inspection in a completely different way than the rest of the population , says May- Len Skilbrei .She is an associate professor in the Department of Criminology and Sociology , and research on developments in prostitution , migration , gender and immigration .
The legislation used creatively
Prostitution has for years , since Russian women began selling sex in Norway in the late 90s , aroused suspicion of human trafficking and pimping . Skilbreis research shows how the immigration law and criminal law are connected in various ways to prevent and detect trafficking in the cross-border prostitution . Legislation is also used creatively to prevent full legal prostitution , and to use women as agents in pursuit of criminals. In the article " Transnational prostitution in the conflict between fighting crime and immigration control" (2013 ) describes three different practices Skilbrei government uses . The first is that the police use actions against houses and hotels where women selling sex lives to uncover pimping , trafficking and buying sex . These actions are a strong impact on the lives of women who sell sex. Since the attacks also reveal offenses or lack of residency in the women themselves , this means that actions could just as easily lead to women being taken , that those who exploit them becomes.
Police need witnesses
The second practice is how prostitutes access to Norway connected with police looking for witnesses to violations of human trafficking section. Police revealed on the border of the incoming women have broken immigration law or criminal law , and use this as an input to discussions with them to get them to " admit " that they are victims of trafficking. The women like to be seen as victims who need help. But instead of giving them the help they are detained for minor offenses. It is not uncommon for women missing passport or residence permit. Police then uses these offenses as leverage to get the conversations with women about crimes others have committed.
Human trafficking is an offense for which prosecution is highly dependent on courtroom testimony from victims , so it is important for police to secure these . At the same time puts the increased monitoring and initiatives to women them in a vulnerable situation. Skilbrei shows how this practice , which is often held up as an example to be followed by the police, goes beyond legal protection , safety and welfare of victims of trafficking.
To prevent future offenses
The third practice she describes how the Norwegian authorities using immigration law disqualify women at the border that they know or guess going to sell sex or reject visa applications in their home country. The women stopped when not in an attempt to uncover human trafficking and help victims , but to prevent them from traveling to Norway . The aim and the reason is to prevent offenses other people might conceivably perform , such as buying sex . That women "punished " for other possible future offenses. Who else in our society are treated like this, ask Skilbrei .
The Nordic model
In Norway connects prostitution , trafficking and immigration law in such a way that women who sell sex gets worse , and in the other Nordic countries occurs similar things . The " Nordic model " of prostitution policy reflects the following Skilbrei a political desire to signal that one takes the weak party , when prostitution often associated with oppression of women and the use of force by men.Prostitution and the parties involved are met by different sets of rules that carry with them different views on prostitution . The Penal Code states that whoever buys sex should have the greatest responsibility , because you think he has the most power in the situation. In this respect it is the buyer who should be punished .We also see that the selling sex meet many other bans from other parts of the legislation . In this respect , the authorities very mixed signals about who is responsible for prostitution , says Skilbrei .
The blame is placed on the women still
- The authorities believe that prohibit the sale would be giving the wrong message , as one would blame the women , and there is little political tradition in Norway and Scandinavia. But in practice it is done anyway , to deal with human trafficking , pimping and buying sex .We see in Europe that it is women work against prostitution and trafficking greatly exceeds . The legislation is not applied to men, but it is not getting men who sell sex either. You define them outside problem. Sex-purchase law is handled very differently, and when not expose the male sellers for the same intervention must also be a gender perspective here , think Skilbrei .